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The Ancient Bulgar calendar 
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Posted: 05 Feb 2010 at 01:49 
In this topic I will present the description of the ancient Bulgar calendar (BC) and its mathematical and astronomical grounds. At the end, I will compare it with the Chinese calendar. Where necessary, for better understanding, there are also comparisions with the Gregorian calendar (GC).
The following is a brief extract from the book written by Georgi Krastev, Svetlozar Rulinski, Todor Tselov and Boyko Mihaylov. The Bulgar calendar is recognized in 1976 by UNESCO as the most accurate calendar of all known to date. It is very easy to use and to remember because each date corresponds to one day of the week only every year. General characteristics of the Bulgar calendar (BC):
24hour cycle:
Earth 1Year cycle:
The 12 months of the Earth year and the years of the 12year cycle have the same names. The exact match of the months as per BC with the zodiac is as follows: GC  BC  Zodiac January  Swine Capricorn February  Mouse  Aquarius March  Ox  Pisces April  Bars  Aries May  Rabbit  Taurus June  Dragon  Twins July  Snake  Cancer August  Horse  Lion September  Monkey  Virgo October  Ram  Libra November  Rooster  Scorpio December  Dog  Sagittarius As you know, the 12 zodiac constelations are not matched by the GC months. Edited by Ivan Asen II  05 Feb 2010 at 01:59 

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Correction of the Bulgar calendar
Leap correction  1 leap day is added every 4 Earth years Starweekly correction  3 leap days are subtracted every 1st, 3rd and 5th star days, i.e. In Earth years with numbers 60, 180 and 300. Starmonthly correction  1 leap day is subtracted from every Earth 1680year cycle. The subtraction is made in the middle of the cycle, i.e in the 840th year. Total subtracted leap days  13. Staryear correction  1 leap day is subtracted from every Earth 20160year cycle. The subtraction is made in the middle of the cycle, i.e in the 10080th year. Total subtracted leap days  157. StarSotic correction  1 leap day is subtracted from every Earth 80640year cycle. The subtraction is made in the middle of the cycle, i.e in the 40320th year. Total substracted leap days  629. Final correction  1 leap day, subtracted from the previous StarSotic correction cycle, is added to every Earth 10080000year cycle. The correction is made in the 5040000th year. Total subtracted leap days  78624. At the end of the 10080000year cycle, the calendar is completely matched with the real time and a new correction cycle begins. Astronomical grounds of the Bulgar calendar:
One earth year corresponds to the time for one revolution of the Earth around the Sun (365,2422 days). 12 earth years correspond to the time for one revolution of Jupiter (In Old Bulgarian: Yankul = master of time) around the Sun (11,86 years). Simultaneous observation over the solar clock and Jupiter with the help of two diametrically opposed stars shows that after 12 years, 365 days and 3 additional days, the first star appears on the sky on the exact same location and in the exact same hour as in the initial moment of observation. Thus we have the 12*365+3=4383 days, divided in 3 leap periods – one leap period contains 3 normal years and 1 leap day. Saturn goes around the Sun for about 30 years. From here, the 60year and respectively the 120year cycles. Uran goes around the Sun for 84,0127 years. The star year contains 240 periods of 84 years, the star 3month cycle  60, the star month  20 and the star week  5. The precession is a slow motion with period of 25920 years  the Earth's axis draws a cone with generant inclination of 62 angle degrees and 33 minutes. The nutation is a fast motion of the Earth's axis with a period of 18,6 years. Thre nutation periods form 56year cycle, called Meton cycle. The Earth year consists of 360 Meton cycles. The big semiaxis of the Earth's orbit moves slowly and eastwards with a speed of 11,5345 angular seconds per year. The relative speed of the equinox against the big axis is 61,5345 anle seconds per year. Thus, the equinox point will pass through the orbital axis every 21061 years. This is 4,47% more than the star year, which is acceptable error considering the scale and can be assumed that the star year is formed by the precessions of the Earth's axis and the Earth's orbit. Mathematical grounds of the Bulgar calendar: The star year cycle: 20160 = (1/2)*(8!) The precession period: 25920 = 36*(6!) Number of Methon cycles in a year: 360 = (1/2)*(6!) Number of years in the 60year cycle: 60 = (1/2)*(5!) Number of counted days of the year: 364 = 2*2+4*4+6*6+8*8+10*10+12*12 Duration of the star year: 20160 = 12*12*(1*1+2*2+3*3+4*4+5*5+6*6+7*7) The zero and leap days are sometimes considered months  13th and 14th: 2*(13*14) = 364 (counted days in a year) Total number of days in a year (nonleap): 365 = 13*13+14*14 First golden ratio: 1,653 = (25920/20160)*(25920/20160) Edited by Ivan Asen II  05 Feb 2010 at 01:56 

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Differences between the Bulgar and the Chinese calendar: The Bulgar calendar is Solar, the Chinese is LunarSolar. The Bulgar New Year starts on the next day after the winter solstice, teh Chinese first day of the New Year is not fixed. The Bulgar New Year starts with the month of the Swine, the Chinese  of the Mouse In the Bulgar Calendar, the year of the Monkey is before that of the Ram, and in the Chinese  after theat of the Sheep. In the Bulgar calendar, each animal is both male or female, in the Chinese  the mouse, tiger, dragon, horse, monkey and the dog are male only and the cow, rabbit, snake, sheep, hen and swine are female only. In the Bulgar calendar the Tree element is blue and in the Chinese  green. In the Bulgar calendar, the sequence of the elements is water, fire, earth, tree, metal; the sequence in the Chinese is  tree, fire, earth, metal and water. The Bulgar calendar uses a leap day, teh Chinese  a leap month. The Bulgar zodiac is not retrograde, the Chinese is. Edited by Ivan Asen II  05 Feb 2010 at 01:54 

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