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Ethnic origins of Cossacks (Circassian traces)

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    Posted: 30 Sep 2009 at 22:52
I've been reading recently different works about the ethnic origins of Cossacks. And, interestingly enough, it appears that Circassians were important contributors to this new society.
 
In fact, before the Mongol invasion Circassian settlements were located very much to the north than now, up to the Don river.
 
Besides, Russian sources of the 15th and 16th century, simply call Cossacks directly "Circassians."
 
I will post more about this interesting topic and also about other theories of Cossacks genesis.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Al Jassas Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 30 Sep 2009 at 23:27

Well the genetic makeup of circassians has been extensively studied so I guess there is some studies on cossack genetic line too.

Personally I think they are a very complex mix. It is already established that some of them are of turkic origins. The rest is a mix of original slavic tribes who were always semi-nomadic and never settled as the rest of the slavic groups, some are from norse origins while others are Hungarians and Germanic peoples and so on.
 
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote calvo Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 01 Oct 2009 at 12:53
What I've read was that the first Cossacks had always been Tatars: both "registered Cossacks" who fought for the Russians, and "free Cossacks" who roamed the steppes were formed of Tatar renegades and deserters. They were later joined by runnaway Russian serfs.
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Sarmat Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 01 Oct 2009 at 14:57
This is the most popular and spread version of course. However, several Russian historians do write that first Cossacks were, in fact, Circassians. For example, Zaporozhian Sich was established, primarily by Cossacks from town Cherkassk in Ukraine. Cherkassk itself was founded by Caucasian Circassians. Russian chronicles as a rule call early Cossacks "Circassians." The capital of the Don Cossack Host was also called Cherkassk. There are Circassian influences in Cossacks' customs, costume, dialects they spoke. Also, seems that they inherited a traditional Circassian passion for Sea piracy in which Circassians had been involved for centuries and that was neither Tatar nor Russian tradition.
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote calvo Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 06 Oct 2009 at 08:06
Often I wonder when did most of the Cossack host become "Slavicised". It is said that throughout most of the 1400s up to 1500, the bulk of the Cossack hosts, both free and registered, consisted mainly of Tatars.
The word "Tatar" should be used with caution here as at the time the Russians almost called any of their non-Slav neighbours to the East and South as Tatars. They could well be Circassians.
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Sarmat Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 06 Oct 2009 at 17:35
Well, it's actually more complicated than that. It appears that the areas of Don and Zaporozhian hosts already had a Slavic population already before the Mongol invasion. Those people were called Brodniks (this word has unclear ethymology, but it most likely means "wanderers") for some reasons, Brodniks prefered to join Mongols during their invasion of Rus it appears also that they had steppan admixutres and were semi-nomadic, it's also possible that they have a more ancient substrates originating from the Ancient inhabitants of the Azov Sea region called Chigi or Zygii who according to some sources were ancestors of Circassians and also Sarmato-Scythians and even Goths that lived in the Azov Sea region up until the Timur invasion in the 14th century and in Crimea up until the 18th century. A medieval traveler from Fladners Welgelim de Roubruk saw those people when he was crossing the Don in the 13th century on his way to the heart of Mongol empire. He was writing that they look like a mixture of Russians with Mongols and that they took best military habits of both people and are strong and warlike. Circassian immigrants were mixing with Brodniks also with neighboring Kipchak elements. With time however, the Slavic element coming from the North became the most dominant. It should be said however, that Cossacks continued to be called Cherkassians (Cherkassy) in many Russian documents until the 19th century and some chronistis even directly wrote that Cossacks originated from Circassians.
 
Actually, Circassian migration went even further north, they played a very important role in the Muscovite court, Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth had elite cavalry units made of Circassians and there are even some aristocratic families in Romania (Valachia and Moldova in medieval times) originated from Circassians.
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote gcle2003 Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 06 Oct 2009 at 20:35
I always understood that 'Cossack' wasn't an ethnic designation at all, any more than 'cowboy' was in the US. There's no Cossack language, for instance: from what I've seen they spoke either Russian or Ukrainian. And their military role in central Asia was surely supporting Russia in battling the Tatars?
 
If the Cossacks weren't Russian - at least in part - how come the most famous Cossack song invokes "Volga, Volga, mat' rodnaya / Volga, russkaya reka"? ("Volga, Volga, our people's river / Volga, Russian river")
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Zagros Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 06 Oct 2009 at 21:04
Totally agree with gcle, I always thought they were a type of mounted military unit, with a fierce reputation.  But if you mean the cossack culture then it is definitively Caucasian/Circasian from the dance to the dress.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Persian_Cossack_Brigade
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Sarmat Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 06 Oct 2009 at 22:09
Originally posted by gcle2003 gcle2003 wrote:

I always understood that 'Cossack' wasn't an ethnic designation at all, any more than 'cowboy' was in the US. There's no Cossack language, for instance: from what I've seen they spoke either Russian or Ukrainian. And their military role in central Asia was surely supporting Russia in battling the Tatars?
 
This is a very difficult question. And it's established with certainty that Cossacks are at least a subethnic group of Russians, if not a distinctive ethnicity. Their culture is quite distinctive from the Russian culture. With many elements that are complitely absent from the general Russian culture. Cossacks spoke Russian and Ukrainian, of course, but they also have their own dialects and vocabularly that is used only by them. Also, Cossacks were rather in uneasy relations with the Russian State until the end of the 18th century. There was group of Cossacks that only relatively recently (1950th) repatriated to back to Russia from Turkey where they escaped in the 18th century after another military conflict that time with Peter the Great. Those Cossacks called Nekrasovtsy (Nekrasov Cossacks) followed a very interesting code "Zavet Ignata" "Covenant of Ignat" that prohibited the return to their native lands until the tsardom exists.
 
Originally posted by gcle2003 gcle2003 wrote:

If the Cossacks weren't Russian - at least in part - how come the most famous Cossack song invokes "Volga, Volga, mat' rodnaya / Volga, russkaya reka"? ("Volga, Volga, our people's river / Volga, Russian river")
 
This is not a Cossack song, it's a song about Cossacks created by the Russian poet Dmitrii Sadovnikov in the 19th century.


Edited by Sarmat - 06 Oct 2009 at 22:14
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote calvo Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 07 Oct 2009 at 08:40
Originally posted by Sarmat Sarmat wrote:

Well, it's actually more complicated than that. It appears that the areas of Don and Zaporozhian hosts already had a Slavic population already before the Mongol invasion. Those people were called Brodniks
 


Would the Brodniks have formed part of the Cumans?
The Cumans were described as a people with Eastern-European appearance but with Turkic language, customs, and art of war.
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote calvo Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 07 Oct 2009 at 08:48
Originally posted by Zagros Zagros wrote:

Totally agree with gcle, I always thought they were a type of mounted military unit, with a fierce reputation.  But if you mean the cossack culture then it is definitively Caucasian/Circasian from the dance to the dress.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Persian_Cossack_Brigade


This was the case in the later centuries; when most Cossack hosts were "tamed" by the Russian emperors and contracted as frontiersmen.
For most of the 15th-18th centuries, the Cossacks were independent bands of warriors who roamed the steppes and raided the Tatars and the Russian caravans alike. In the early centuries they were described to be mainly of "Tatar stock", formed mainly from Golden Horde deserters. They were joined later by runaway serfs and summer migrants from Russia; who ended up forming the majority of the hosts.
Many popular anti-Imperialist rebellions were headed by Cossacks. Stenka Rasin was a Cossack, and so was Puchagov. Politically they were clearly "against" Russia.

Due to the fact that most of these runaways and deserters who fled to the Cossack hosts were male; the bulk of them took wives from the tribes that they fought against: be them Tatars, Chechens, Circassians; therefore, the customs of these "foreign peoples" became dominant among the Cossacks.

It is rather ironic to think that in the 1800s and 1900s, the spirit of Cossackdom had completely inverted itself. They became the Emperor's instrument of terror in their repression against peasant rebellions and ethnic minorities. Despite their partly non-Russian and non-Slavic origins, the began to represent the most radical form of Russian nationalism.


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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote gcle2003 Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 07 Oct 2009 at 10:43
Razin and others fought against the official Russian state, just as the Young and Old Pretenders rebelled against the official united kingdom. Doesn't mean that James and Charles weren't British, or Razin wasn't Russian.
 
I had a former Cossack officer as an instructor in the army: he fought for Russia in WW1 and against the USSR in WW2. In both cases he saw himself as fighting for Russia.
 
It doesn't seem that the Cossacks were any more obsessed with racial or ethnic origin than, say, the pirates of the Caribbean were. So I'd agree you could probably find traces of all the peoples of the region among the Cossacks.
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Sarmat Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 07 Oct 2009 at 14:43
Originally posted by calvo calvo wrote:



Would the Brodniks have formed part of the Cumans?
The Cumans were described as a people with Eastern-European appearance but with Turkic language, customs, and art of war.
No. According to Russian chronicles they had Russian names and spoke Russian, so, they were distinctive from Cumans.
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Sarmat Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 07 Oct 2009 at 15:04
Originally posted by gcle2003 gcle2003 wrote:

Razin and others fought against the official Russian state, just as the Young and Old Pretenders rebelled against the official united kingdom. Doesn't mean that James and Charles weren't British, or Razin wasn't Russian.
Not really. And it's not totally compared with piracy. Cossacks had their own area with certain bounaries where they lived according to their own culture, traditions and laws. They were born and died on that land, so there were Cossacks born and raised on Cossack land (Cossacks by birth) who viewed peoples who joined Cossacks hosts at different times as aliens. Of course, there were times were Cossack hosts were open for everybody who could reach them. But, starting from the 18th century Cossack hosts became closed for the outsiders and since then there were "Cossacks by birth only."
 
 
Originally posted by gcle2003 gcle2003 wrote:

I had a former Cossack officer as an instructor in the army: he fought for Russia in WW1 and against the USSR in WW2. In both cases he saw himself as fighting for Russia.
 
Again, it's extremely complicated. During the civil war in Russia there were basically two fractions one fraction that wanted the restoration of the old imperial Russia and another one that wanted an independent Cossack state. However, even pro-Russian Cossacks, acknowledged themeslves as a special ethnic subgroup of Russians.
 
Originally posted by gcle2003 gcle2003 wrote:

It doesn't seem that the Cossacks were any more obsessed with racial or ethnic origin than, say, the pirates of the Caribbean were. So I'd agree you could probably find traces of all the peoples of the region among the Cossacks.
 
Yes, they were not in sometimes particularly 16th and 17th century when the hosts were, basically, open for everybody, but as I said starting from the 18th century, the "obsession" appears about being "native Cossacks", even at sometimes a kind of arrogance towards the other Russians.


Edited by Sarmat - 07 Oct 2009 at 15:05
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Cossacks from cossacks. We created our own social network http://kazaknation.com/ . 

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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Rugila Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 12 Nov 2011 at 13:01

Cossack have nothing common with caucasians, caucasians not able to handle horse so perfectly as do cossacks. Circassians are descendants of oguz turkic tribes who smashed Jewish Hazarian state in a joint venture with Slavic prince Svyatoslav, later on again joint armies of oguz and slavic tribes smashed volga bulgarian state. May be that times oguz tribes with slavic shaped different ethnos as cossacks.


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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Zagros Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 12 Nov 2011 at 15:04
Originally posted by Sarmat Sarmat wrote:

I've been reading recently different works about the ethnic origins of Cossacks. And, interestingly enough, it appears that Circassians were important contributors to this new society.
 
In fact, before the Mongol invasion Circassian settlements were located very much to the north than now, up to the Don river.
 
Besides, Russian sources of the 15th and 16th century, simply call Cossacks directly "Circassians."
 
I will post more about this interesting topic and also about other theories of Cossacks genesis.
 
 


This is not surprising given the obvious Caucasian cultural elements they espoused and are most famous for.
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote whalebreath Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 13 Nov 2011 at 04:50
Originally posted by Sarmat Sarmat wrote:

Cossacks had their own area with certain bounaries where they lived according to their own culture, traditions and laws. They were born and died on that land, so there were Cossacks born and raised on Cossack land (Cossacks by birth) who viewed peoples who joined Cossacks hosts at different times as aliens. Of course, there were times were Cossack hosts were open for everybody who could reach them. But, starting from the 18th century Cossack hosts became closed for the outsiders and since then there were "Cossacks by birth only."..... sometimes particularly 16th and 17th century when the hosts were, basically, open for everybody, but as I said starting from the 18th century, the "obsession" appears about being "native Cossacks", even at sometimes a kind of arrogance towards the other Russians.
That's true as far as it goes but you fail to mention the  not uncommon practice of adopting outsiders.

Modern day Cossack group singing in Ukrainian


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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Sarmat Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 03 Dec 2011 at 08:02
Originally posted by Rugila Rugila wrote:

Cossack have nothing common with caucasians, caucasians not able to handle horse so perfectly as do cossacks.

Apparently, you know few things about Caucasians...

Originally posted by Rugila Rugila wrote:

Circassians are descendants of oguz turkic tribes who smashed Jewish Hazarian state in a joint venture with Slavic prince Svyatoslav, later on again joint armies of oguz and slavic tribes smashed volga bulgarian state. May be that times oguz tribes with slavic shaped different ethnos as cossacks

Interesting. What is the source of this nonsense?

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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Rugila Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 03 Dec 2011 at 12:46

This is  commonly known historical events,

In 466 oguz tribes(white huns)  gained victory over their  another kindred Hunnic tribes. Later on some oguz tribes formed ethnos – Bolgar. In 480 Bolgars saved Byzantin from Ostgoths’  invasions.Those oguz fully mixed with slavic tribes and left the name to that nation as ‘Bolgar’.

In 746 turkic tribe “ karluks” invaded into central asian steppes which was the main territory of  “Oguz” tribes. Karluks chased oguz to depart from there to aral sea area, from this area turkic tribe “Bajanaks” were chased to south russian steppes and later they were  called as “Pechenegs”.

In 956 Kievan prince Svyatoslav and oguz concluded alliance against Khazarian state and this resulted with utter defeat of Khazars. In 985 prince Vladimir again concluded alliance with oguz but this time against Volga Bolgarians.

In the middle of 11’th century again oguz were pressed by other turkic tribes and this time part of oguz invaded to Byzantine empire, the rest of them had to move to southrussian steppes and some remained in central asia.


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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Rugila Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 03 Dec 2011 at 13:29

Originally posted by Rugila Rugila wrote:

Circassians are descendants of oguz turkic tribes who smashed Jewish Hazarian state in a joint venture with Slavic prince Svyatoslav, later on again joint armies of oguz and slavic tribes smashed volga bulgarian state. May be that times oguz tribes with slavic shaped different ethnos as cossacks

Interesting. What is the source of this nonsense?

[/QUOTE]

Secondly, circassians and kabardo-bolgarians are nearly same nations and have nearly same language, both of them have oguz lineages.Here we can differentiate them from Kipchaks and Mongols, due to their apparent Hunnic origin, Kipchaks and Mongols are -dish/oguz(means outer tribe) but Hunns,circassians,turks are- ich/oguz(means inner tribe) according to ancient Assirian scriptures of King Assarhadon assyrians called scyths as ichguza,here we clearly see who were scyths.



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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote drgonzaga Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 03 Dec 2011 at 14:23
The term Oguz does not constitute an ethnos and any attempt to propagate this fraud is simply unhistorical genealogical fancy.
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Rugila Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 03 Dec 2011 at 16:08
Originally posted by drgonzaga drgonzaga wrote:

The term Oguz does not constitute an ethnos and any attempt to propagate this fraud is simply unhistorical genealogical fancy.



 Go and read some persian verses about Afrasiab alias Oguz Han alias Frangrasion alias Alp Gerr Tong the ancestor of oguz ethnos,this ethnos worshipped cows therewith the word Ox coming from Oguz, greeks called this nation as Ox and even the river where they lived called Ox, also in greek language Taurus means Ox. All the tribes had the common names as Ox or Augz orTaurus . I don’t think that such evident facts shall be called  fancy .



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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Sarmat Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 03 Dec 2011 at 16:17
Originally posted by Rugila Rugila wrote:

Secondly, circassians and kabardo-bolgarians are nearly same nations and have nearly same language, both of them have oguz lineages.Here we can differentiate them from Kipchaks and Mongols, due to their apparent Hunnic origin, Kipchaks and Mongols are -dish/oguz(means outer tribe) but Hunns,circassians,turks are- ich/oguz(means inner tribe) according to ancient Assirian scriptures of King Assarhadon assyrians called scyths as ichguza,here we clearly see who were scyths.
 
Sorry, but that is incorrect. Circassian language belongs to the Caucasian family of languages (north-western group) it's not genetically related to Turkic in any way. Also, Circassians are very ancient indigenous inhabitants of Caucasus and their ancestors were documented by ancient historiancs as Zygii.
 
Turks came much later to the region.
 
Kabardno-Balkar language is Turkic and most likely originated from Kipchak but in any event either your sources are incorrect or you confused something.
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote drgonzaga Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 03 Dec 2011 at 16:23
Yes, it is "fancy" and actually the detritus of 19th century historiographical mythmaking since it is part and parcel of the jazz about Seljuks and Ottomans being "Oguz" now further clouded by pseudo-nationalism among questionable "academics" playing at politics. As for the Latin, taurus, being Greek, please! The Greek word for Ox is bodi (Ancient Greek, bous) and your response simply illustrates the extent to which actual knowledge is abused for the sake of taurus foeces!
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Rugila Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 03 Dec 2011 at 18:11
Originally posted by drgonzaga drgonzaga wrote:

Yes, it is "fancy" and actually the detritus of 19th century historiographical mythmaking since it is part and parcel of the jazz about Seljuks and Ottomans being "Oguz" now further clouded by pseudo-nationalism among questionable "academics" playing at politics. As for the Latin, taurus, being Greek, please! The Greek word for Ox is bodi (Ancient Greek, bous) and your response simply illustrates the extent to which actual knowledge is abused for the sake of taurus foeces!


I ascribed mistakenly the Etymology of word Ox to greeks but here is actual etymology: Ox comes from Old English oxa; related to Old Saxon, Old High German okso, Old Norse oxi.Anyway you fail to refute claim that Afrasiab alias Oguz Han alias Alp Gerr Tong the ancestor of oguz ethnos,and that this ethnos worshipped cows therewith the word Ox coming from Oguz, this nation was called as Ox and even the river where they lived called Ox (Amu Darya), All the tribes had the common names as Taurus or Ox or Augz.

After all, do you know where is Amu Darya? Lol.



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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Rugila Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 03 Dec 2011 at 18:12
Sorry, but that is incorrect. Circassian language belongs to the Caucasian family of languages (north-western group) it's not genetically related to Turkic in any way. Also, Circassians are very ancient indigenous inhabitants of Caucasus and their ancestors were documented by ancient historiancs as Zygii.
 
Turks came much later to the region.
 
Kabardno-Balkar language is Turkic and most likely originated from Kipchak but in any event either your sources are incorrect or you confused something.


First time in my life I hear that circassians are not turkic, may be I live in another world?

However I understand circassian language because it’s same turkic-etruscos language.



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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Sarmat Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 03 Dec 2011 at 18:35
You are definitely from another world. Circassians are not Turkic. Moreover, Etruscan language is not deciphered yet. Nobody certainly knows to which group it belongs.
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote drgonzaga Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 03 Dec 2011 at 19:36
Originally posted by Rugila Rugila wrote:

I ascribed mistakenly the Etymology of word Ox to greeks but here is actual etymology: Ox comes from Old English oxa; related to Old Saxon, Old High German okso, Old Norse oxi.Anyway you fail to refute claim that Afrasiab alias Oguz Han alias Alp Gerr Tong the ancestor of oguz ethnos,and that this ethnos worshipped cows therewith the word Ox coming from Oguz, this nation was called as Ox and even the river where they lived called Ox (Amu Darya), All the tribes had the common names as Taurus or Ox or Augz.

After all, do you know where is Amu Darya? Lol

 
If you are so blissfully unaware of cow worship, as well as the bull totem, being the height of fashion long before any "Oguz" littered the earth so be it but the attempt to ascribe ox as the meaning of "Oguz" is fast become an example of the oxymoronic. And your venture into Persian mythology could not be more unfortuitious were you to try another somersault.  Turanians were not "Turks", Oguz or otherwise, and one has to wonder just what version of the Shanameh, you are attempting to subvert. And please spare me any other risible effort with respect to the Gozan specially if you are attempting another bit of foolishness with the nomenclature drawn from Herodotus and the name Oxus. By the way in the Turkic languages, oguz (var. oghuz) means tribe or horde and does not mean "bull" or are we in for a dissertation on the boga Turks?
 
 
Honi soit qui mal y pense
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Rugila Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 03 Dec 2011 at 20:37

Originally posted by Sarmat Sarmat wrote:

You are definitely from another world. Circassians are not Turkic. Moreover, Etruscan language is not deciphered yet. Nobody certainly knows to which group it belongs.


I somewhat considered circassians as turkic though I didn't know before that some of them have nothing common with turkic, karachay-circassians both means "black tea bushes" (look into google translator from turkic)but most of them as kabardians, karachays have  turkic origins,the rest -adyges , Abhaz, Abaza, Osetians have other roots. Circassians divide into several tribes as Abzah or  Abadzeh (Абдзах), Bjeduğ (Бжъэдыгъу), Shapsığ, Hak'uç (Хьак1уцу), Natuhay, K'emguy (К1эмгуй), Mahoş, Yegerukay, Mamhığ, Besleney, Hatukay (Хьатикъуай) ve Kabartaylar (Къэбэрдэй). Among them kabardians are numerous than other tribes, it’s sad to say that one tribe as Ubuhs were cut utterly by Suvorov. Kabardians are the only ones who less than others fought with russians, when chechen Imam Shamil called them they refused to join him.

Circassian’s  word – The most precious thing is Humanity!


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